- SMARTsearch for term
Simple-Measurable-Accessible-Relevant-Timely; Taylor et al. 2000
- Social data collectionsearch for term
This term is self-explanatory; the recent past has seen a growing emphasis on social data collection given that many development projects have failed because they have been ‘rejected’ or simply not perceived as beneficial and therefore ignored by those they were intended to benefit. Social data is likely to fall within the following parameters: before and after an intervention; over time; comparing like with like; measuring increase or decrease. Methods of collecting data of structure, while seen as disciplined and managerially accountable, tends to disallow participation by stakeholders in service delivery decision-making distant from the centre. However, the ‘lowest appropriate administrative level’ should not be a level without the resources, clout, or technical expertise to take informed and effective decisions. Subsidiarity must not be allowed to mean abandonment of responsibility, but rather encourage the mobilisation of resources and inputs at all levels, and capacity building to allow greater decentralisation of decision making on a progressive basis. which reflect the real needs and attitudes of local people participatory rural appraisal (PRA) , rapid rural appraisal (RRA), and Knowledge Attitude and Practice (KAP) studies . All these are covered in the literature on social survey methodology.
- Social Impact Assessment (SIA)search for term
Social Impact Assessment is a method of finding out how a community or set of communities are likely to experience the intended outcomes of a project; and whether these are likely to affect their lives in such a way that they will reject the project, experience it either negatively or positively, and what level of ownership and responsibility for it can be anticipated. (See Chapter 13 for a faller description)Synonymes: SIA
- Social mobilisationsearch for term
Social mobilisation is the term used to describe a planned effort to mobilise population groups, community and political leaders and other stakeholders behind a set of programme objectives and activities. A social mobilisation campaign could include a National Day (for example, for Sanitation) launched by the President or a top political leader. Groups within society, including NGOs, local administrators, schools, and government departments can be invited to undertake special activities up to and on the Day, and efforts made to ensure maximum media coverage. Social mobilisation can be a means of expanding communications channels and putting across messages about public health or environmental protection to a wide range of audiences. (See also Communications techniques.)
- Stakeholderssearch for term
A stakeholder is a person or a group of people who have a direct interest in the project because its existence will materially affect their lives. The interests of stakeholders will be established by dialogue with them, as will their attitudes and reactions to the project and the demands it may make upon them, and they are therefore crucial to the participation process. The identification of stakeholders through stakeholder analysis at an early stage is therefore essential (see Chapter 13 for a fuller description). Stakeholders may include: project beneficiaries; local people who are not beneficiaries; NGOs; community-based organisations such as women’s groups; government departments and agencies; private producers and entrepreneurs; farmers’ associations; fishermen; local artisans; industry; trades unions; professional associations (e.g. engineers); donors; consultants; councillors and other political representatives. It is important to include minority groups, low status groups and the poorer groups in society.
Stakeholder analysis is also used to assess the relationships between the project and all the actors. It can then be used as a basis for designing approaches to build on those relationships, where they are positive, or improve them where they are negative.
- Subsidiarity principlesearch for term
The principle of subsidiarity has been recognised as an internationally agreed principle governing water-related activity. As expressed in the Institutional and management principles in Chapter 2 of these Guidelines: ‘Responsibilities for water-related services and resource management need to be decentralised to the lowest appropriate administrative level according to the concept of subsidiarity.’ The intent of this principle is to discourage the perpetuation of centralised and hierarchical command structures in authorities responsible for water resource management. This type 221 of structure, while seen as disciplined and managerially accountable, tends to disallow participation by stakeholders in service delivery decision-making distant from the centre.
However, the ‘lowest appropriate administrative level’ should not be a level without the resources, clout, or technical expertise to take informed and effective decisions. Subsidiarity must not be allowed to mean abandonment of responsibility, but rather encourage the mobilisation of resources and inputs at all levels, and capacity building to allow greater decentralisation of decision making on a progressive basis.