- Appropriate modern technologysearch for term
The term ‘appropriate technology’ was originally often used interchangeably with ‘intermediate technology’ at a time when the over-sophistication of technology used in many development projects was a major problem and led to their failure. It has therefore often been wrongly applied to mean technology of an unsophisticated kind. However, the key concept is that technology should be ‘appropriate’ in all senses – managerially, economically, socially, environmentally; this may mean that it should not be highly sophisticated, but not necessarily. In addition, there have been a number of technical advances and introductions of cost-cutting materials in low-level technology in recent years – in the cases, for example, of handpumps, tubewell casing and latrine parts. And certain apparently low-level technologies – solar power, for example – are technically complicated and require high levels of precision. Therefore, the term ‘appropriate modern technology’ captures all elements and can be used to ensure no confusion with low-level or intermediate technology, or technology which is not up-to-date.
- Awareness raisingsearch for term
Awareness raising or awareness building is the objective of information, education and communications activity, usually directed at the intended beneficiaries of services but also at other stakeholders, including politicians, government officials, and private companies. Identifying awareness raising as a specific activity of programmes and projects underlines the fact that a certain level of awareness – about the nature of services, the costs of services, the need to protect water after the point of collection, the need for hygienic use of water to control disease, and about many other aspects of water-related schemes – cannot be taken for granted among potential service users. Awareness of the relevant issues is necessary for effective participation and community ownership of schemes, for developing support for service charges and systems of tariff collection, and for introducing mechanisms for environmental protection. Awareness raising is needed to close the gap between the expectations of donors and project managers, and those of beneficiaries, especially among undereducated populations, and cannot be left to chance. See also Communications techniques.