- Capacity buildingsearch for term
'Capacity building' is the term used to describe the necessary process of institutional expansion, improvement or reform which facilitates the effective operation of programmes or services. The process should be continuous, and applies as much to formal bodies as informal bodies, such as local community groups. The concept of capacity building has become very prominent in development thinking during the recent past. (See Chapter 13 for a description of methods of capacity building.)
- Clean technologysearch for term
Technology used today must respect environmental sustainability. This means designing systems so that as little waste and as few emissions as possible are produced. ‘Clean technology’ is a holistic approach to technology. It may mean switching to a more environmentally benign production method, or the introduction of a system which reduces waste output. A key objective in water-related contexts is to minimise both consumption and waste throughout the whole process of water supply and sewerage delivery, transport and treatment, without compromise to public health. For example, volumes of water used in flushing can be minimised: it is unsustainable to use environmentally and economically expensive clean, treated water as a medium for the transport of domestic and industrial waste. This waste, as well as sullage (or grey water) can be seen as a resource. By utilising sullage for irrigation, for example, the volumes of mixed waste entering a plant can be reduced, therefore minimising the energy and chemicals used in water treatment.
Further information: Clean Technology – An Introduction, Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 1995.
- Communications techniquessearch for term
Establishing good communications channels between key stakeholders – notably project staff, officials, local communities and beneficiaries – is an important part of project planning. Without good communications, the participatory process is likely to remain cosmetic and ineffective. Many techniques have been developed for eliciting and exchanging information between stakeholders, especially between project staff and beneficiary populations and user groups, and are described in the literature on participatory appraisal (see below). Low-income, illiterate or marginalised groups may feel inhibited in face-to-face contact with outsiders and these techniques are designed to overcome such problems. Communications aids such as flip-charts, cue-cards, visualisation of problems, videos and cartoons, may be needed. NGOs, educators, and communications experts with the relevant experience need to be involved in the development of such aids and their application. More distant communications channels such as radio and television can also be used, but active participation requires face-to-face communications.
Further information:Communication strategies for heightening awareness of water, UNESCO, 1987. Communication in Water Supply and Sanitation – a Resource Booklet. IRC, 1993.